Global analysis of L1-transcriptomes identified IGFBP-2 as a target of ezrin and NF-κB signaling that promotes colon cancer progression

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Abstract

L1, a neuronal cell adhesion receptor of the immunoglobulin-like protein family is expressed in invading colorectal cancer (CRC) cells as a target gene of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Overexpression of L1 in CRC cells enhances cell motility and proliferation, and confers liver metastasis. We recently identified ezrin and the IκB-NF-κB pathway as essential for the biological properties conferred by L1 in CRC cells. Here, we studied the underlying molecular mechanisms and found that L1 enhances ezrin phosphorylation, via Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), and is required for L1-ezrin co-localization at the juxtamembrane domain and for enhancing cell motility. Global transcriptomes from L1-expressing CRC cells were compared with transcriptomes from the same cells expressing small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to ezrin. Among the genes whose expression was elevated by L1 and ezrin we identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) and showed that its increased expression is mediated by an NF-κB-mediated transactivation of the IGFBP-2 gene promoter. Expression of a constitutively activated mutant ezrin (Ezrin567D) could also increase IGFBP-2 levels in CRC cells. Overexpression of IGFBP-2 in CRC cells lacking L1-enhanced cell proliferation (in the absence of serum), cell motility, tumorigenesis and induced liver metastasis, similar to L1 overexpression. Suppression of endogenous IGFBP-2 in L1-transfected cells inhibited these properties conferred by L1. We detected IGFBP-2 in a unique organization at the bottom of human colonic crypts in normal mucosa and at increased levels throughout human CRC tissue samples co-localizing with the phosphorylated p65 subunit of NF-κB. Finally, we found that IGFBP-2 and L1 can form a molecular complex suggesting that L1-mediated signaling by the L1-ezrin-NF-κB pathway, that induces IGFBP-2 expression, has an important role in CRC progression.

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