CEP55 was initially identified as a pivotal component of abscission, the final stage of cytokinesis, serving to regulate the physical separation of two daughter cells. Over the past 10 years, several studies have illuminated additional roles for CEP55 including regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway and midbody fate. Concurrently, CEP55 has been studied in the context of cancers including those of the breast, lung, colon and liver. CEP55 overexpression has been found to significantly correlate with tumor stage, aggressiveness, metastasis and poor prognosis across multiple tumor types and therefore has been included as part of several prognostic ‘gene signatures’ for cancer. Here by discussing in depth the functions of CEP55 across different effector pathways, and also its roles as a biomarker and driver of tumorigenesis, we assemble an exhaustive review, thus commemorating a decade of research on CEP55.