Overexpression ofPIK3CAin murine head and neck epithelium drives tumor invasion and metastasis through PDK1 and enhanced TGFβ signaling

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Abstract

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients have a poor prognosis, with invasion and metastasis as major causes of mortality. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates a wide range of cellular processes crucial for tumorigenesis, and PIK3CA amplification and mutation are among the most common genetic alterations in human HNSCC. Compared with the well-documented roles of the PI3K pathway in cell growth and survival, the roles of the PI3K pathway in tumor invasion and metastasis have not been well delineated. We generated a PIK3CA genetically engineered mouse model (PIK3CA-GEMM) in which wild-type PIK3CA is overexpressed in head and neck epithelium. Although PIK3CA overexpression alone was not sufficient to initiate HNSCC formation, it significantly increased tumor susceptibility in an oral carcinogenesis mouse model. PIK3CA overexpression in mouse oral epithelium increased tumor invasiveness and metastasis by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and by enriching a cancer stem cell phenotype in tumor epithelial cells. In addition to these epithelial alterations, we also observed marked inflammation in tumor stroma. AKT is a central signaling mediator of the PI3K pathway. However, molecular analysis suggested that progression of PIK3CA-driven HNSCC is facilitated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK1) and enhanced transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling rather than by AKT. Examination of human HNSCC clinical samples revealed that both PIK3CA and PDK1 protein levels correlated with tumor progression, highlighting the significance of this pathway. In summary, our results offer significant insight into how PIK3CA overexpression drives HNSCC invasion and metastasis, providing a rationale for targeting PI3K/PDK1 and TGFβ signaling in advanced HNSCC patients with PIK3CA amplification.

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