Immune effects of 5-fluorouracil: Ambivalence matters

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Abstract

Cytotoxic anticancer drugs can promote antitumor immune responses. The anticancer activity of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) relies on the restoration of T-cell immunity following the elimination of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We have recently discovered that the 5FU-driven activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in MDSCs promotes tumor angiogenesis by eliciting TH17 responses that compromise anticancer immunity. This underscores the need to combine 5-FU with NLRP3 inhibitors to prevent tumor progression.

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