Gender, Race, and Age at Diagnosis as Risk Factors for Metastasis or Recurrence among 1,657 Thyroid Cancer Patients Treated with Radioiodine across 40 Years in Singapore

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Abstract

Background: To obtain descriptive data on Singaporean thyroid cancer patients treated with radioiodine and to assess gender, race, and age at diagnosis as risk factors for metastasis or recurrence. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all thyroid cancer patients treated with radioiodine of any prescribed activity at our institution. Data collected included: age at diagnosis, gender, race, histopathological type, duration of follow-up, and metastasis at diagnosis (locoregional or distant) or recurrence at any time. Gender, race, and age at diagnosis were analyzed for possible associations with metastasis or recurrence. Results: A total of 1,657 thyroid cancer patients were treated with radioiodine across a 40-year period; mean follow-up 6.4 ± 6.9 years (median 4.2 years). 656 (39.6%) patients had metastasis or recurrence over the duration of their follow-up. Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.38; p = 0.006), Malay race (OR 1.71; p < 0.0001), and age at diagnosis of > 46 years (OR 1.31; p = 0.007) were significantly associated with metastasis or recurrence. Conclusion: Male gender, Malay race, and age at diagnosis of > 46 years were significant risk factors for metastasis or recurrence in Singaporean thyroid cancer patients treated with radioiodine.

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