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It was the aim of this study to analyze the influence of implant design and surface topography on the osseointegration of dental zirconium implants.Six different implant designs were tested in the study. Nine or 10 test implants were inserted in the frontal skull in each of 10 miniature pigs. Biopsies were harvested after 2 and 4 months and subjected to microradiography.No significant differences between titanium and zirconium were found regarding the microradiographically detected bone-implant contact (BIC). Cylindric zirconium implants showed a higher BIC at the 2-month follow-up than conic zirconium implants. Among zirconium implants, those with an intermediate Ra value showed a significantly higher BIC compared with low and high Ra implants 4 months after surgery.Regarding osseointegration, titanium and zirconium showed equal properties. Cylindric implant design and intermediate surface roughness seemed to enhance osseointegration.