Correlation between three-dimensional morphological changes of the hyoid bone with other skeletal maturation methods in adolescents

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The study compares growth changes of hyoid bone in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with conventional skeletal maturation methods to examine their potential implications in the development of a three-dimensional method.

Study design

Subjects (n = 62, 11-17 years of age) were exposed to CBCT at a six-month interval (T1/T2/T3). Ten-hyoid distances were compared with age, hand wrist skeletal maturation index (SMI), and cervical vertebral maturation stage (CS).


The length of greater cornua (GC) was most frequently, moderate to highly correlated with age (right: 0.57/0.53/0.58; left: 0.45/0.50/0.48), SMI (right: 0.52/0.40/0.45; left: 0.42 at T3), and CS (right: 0.52 at T1), followed by the length of the hyoid bone with age (right: 0.50/0.49/0.47; left: 0.44/0.47 at T1/T2), SMI (right: 0.45/0.41 at T1/T2), and CS (right: 0.48 at T1). The width of body of the hyoid (HB) width was correlated with age (0.43/0.44/0.44). The GC–HB gap was correlated with age (right: −0.41 at T3) and SMI (right: −0.42 at T1).


Peripubertal hyoid maturation did not yield sufficient diagnostic information for considerations in the development of a 3D-skeletal maturation method.

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