Neuroendocrine tumor in the mandible: a case report with imaging and histopathologic findings

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Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from neuroendocrine cells and are mostly observed in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lungs. NETs in the oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with an NET in the mandible. The patient did not show any symptoms except for remarkable swelling and bleeding. The lesion appeared as a radiolucent honeycomb abnormality with bone destruction on panoramic radiography. The histopathologic diagnosis following a biopsy was NET. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), and adrenal scintigraphy-labeled meta-iodobenylguanidine were the modalities added to identify the primary site. Multiple lesions were confirmed in the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy was performed to identify the lesions, and several lesions were observed protruding from the mucous membranes. However, the endoscopy specimens did not yield an accurate diagnosis because adequate samples were not acquired. Blood and urine tests revealed no functional activity caused by the tumors. Although the origin was not histopathologically confirmed with endoscopy, this patient was situationally diagnosed with nonfunctional NET originating from the duodenum, as demonstrated by the metastases in the mandible.

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