Possible alternative therapies for oral lichen planus cases refractory to steroid therapies

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Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Immune dysregulation plays a critical role in the development and progression of this disease. Patients' lives may be affected by pain caused by atrophic–erosive lesions. Given the obscure etiology, treatment is usually symptomatic. Topical steroids remain the mainstay of management. However, their therapeutic benefits are not always evident. There are substantial data on the possible therapeutic strategies that are effective in OLP cases refractory to steroids. This review provides an overview of the current approaches for the management of steroid-refractory OLP. The miscellaneous treatment regimens include tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, thalidomide, low-level laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, and surgical excision. Some results obtained from these studies were promising. However, further studies, especially randomized controlled trials with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and larger sample sizes, are required for the evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of these therapies.

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