Evaluation of HLA-G, HLA-E, and PD-L1 proteins in oral osteosarcomas

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Objective.The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) G and E and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in oral osteosarcoma (OO) (n = 13). The relationship between the expression of these molecules and histologic grading and metastasis was also evaluated.Study Design.HLA-G, HLA-E, and PD-L1 were identified by immunohistochemistry. Samples of normal bone tissue (n = 6) were used as controls. The sections were evaluated using a semiquantitative scoring system with an immunoreactive score, where a score of 0 was considered absent, ≤2 was low, and >2 was high expression.Results.We identified high expression of HLA-G, HLA-E, and PD-L1 by malignant osteoblastic cells in 69.2% of OO cases, which was statistically higher than that in controls (P < .05). Overexpression of these proteins was identified in 8 of 11 samples of high-grade and 1 of 2 samples of low-grade OO. Additionally, 66.6% of patients with metastases (n = 4) and 71.4% of patients without metastases (n = 5) had high expression of HLA-G, HLA-E, and PD-L1 in tumor samples (P > .05).Conclusion.OO had high expression of HLA-G, HLA-E, and PD-L1 irrespective of clinicopathologic parameters, including histologic grading and metastasis.

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