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The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results after costochondral grafting (CCG) in growing children with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and jaw deformity by 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) measurement.Patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis and jaw deformity treated by CCG from 2010 to 2014 were evaluated. Their CT data within 1 week after operation and after at least 2 years of follow-up were analyzed using ProPlan CMF 1.4 software. Maximal incisal opening (MIO), condyle-ramus heights, chin deviation, and growth of CCG were measured and compared before and after the operation and at the last follow-up. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis.Seven patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was 46.4 months. Five of 7 patients treated with this protocol experienced good mouth opening and symmetric mandibular growth. One patient achieved good mouth opening but not symmetric growth, and 1 patient experienced ankylosis again.CCG can be a reliable method to treat temporomandibular joint ankylosis with jaw deformity in growing children. Continued growth occurs in the children, but long-term outcomes require further investigation.