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The aim of this study was to compare the expression of proliferative markers and apoptosis-associated proteins in the oral mucosa adjacent to bone sequestrum associated with osteonecrosis (ON) of the jaws and florid osseous dysplasia (OD).Oral mucosal samples derived from surgical procedures performed for treatment of ON and OD (10 cases each) were retrieved. Histologic analysis was done on hematoxylin and eosin–stained slides; immunohistochemical reactions against epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Bcl-2 protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Ki-67 antigen were performed with the immunoperoxidase technique.The epithelium was hyperplastic in 60% and 22% of ON and OD samples, respectively. Cytoplasmic EGF and KGF expression; Bcl-2, VEGF, and IL-6 expressions; and the mean epithelial proliferative index were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Membranous EGF expression was more evident in samples showing hyperplastic epithelium.Exposure to bisphosphonates did not alter the expression of KGF, EGF, VEGF, Bcl-2, IL-6, and the epithelial proliferating index in comparison with inflamed oral mucosa not exposed to bisphosphonates.