Bite force and electromyography evaluation after cranioplasty in patients with craniosynostosis

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This long-term follow-up investigation aimed to assess masticatory muscle function in 15 patients with craniosynostosis with detachment of the temporal muscle during fronto-orbital advancement 6 years after cranioplasty compared with a non-operative stomatognathic healthy cohort in the same age group (n = 25).

Study Design.

The follow-up assessment for the operated children occurred on average 5.2 ± 1.7 years after surgery at the age of 7 ± 1.6 years. The maximum bite force was assessed, in addition to the bilateral function of both temporal and masseter muscles, which were analyzed using superficial electromyography.


The maximum bite force was 257 ± 89 N 255 ± 88 N (right/left), respectively, in the group of operated children and 212 ± 61 N and 203 ± 57 N (right/left), respectively, in the control group, without clinical relevant difference between groups. The surface electromyography signal of the temporal muscle correlated positively with the bite force and showed a slightly lower average resting tone activity in the control group, whereas muscle fatigue occurred slightly faster in the operated children in both muscles without statistically significant difference between the 2 groups.


There was no measurable dysfunction in the temporal muscle after the operative correction of craniosynostosis compared with a healthy population of children.

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