a Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazilb Department of Oral Pathology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazilc Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
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The objective of this study was to report the clinical evaluation results and 3-dimensional (3-D) dental and craniofacial characteristics observed in 2 male patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. The patients were evaluated clinically (soft tissue evaluation, evaluation of occlusion, periodontal and dental examinations) and by using craniofacial computed tomography, with evaluation of 3-D images in ITK-Snap v. 2.2 (Penn Image Computing and Science Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA; http://www.itksnap.org/) and 3-D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org/) software. Mandibular 3-D volumetric label maps were built from computed tomography scans of both patients and compared through superimposition on a healthy patient's mandibular images. Clinically, the patients presented the following oral manifestations: macroglossia, total open bite and generalized diastemas, and absence of caries. Patient 1 showed dental calculus and bleeding at the gingival margin. Patient 2 showed bleeding at the gingival margin, a permanent maxillary left central incisor missing as a result of trauma, and impacted permanent mandibular left and right second molars. 3-D images showed wide arches, prominent antegonial notches, a narrow mandibular body in the region of the antegonial notches, bilateral severe condylar hypoplasia, and enlarged coronoid processes. 3-D imaging and superimpositions revealed oral and skeletal displacements, contributing to the identification of changes in the course of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in patients with a late diagnosis.