Intraoperative 3-dimensional cone beam computed tomographic imaging during reconstruction of the zygoma and orbit

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Fractures of the zygoma and orbit are common facial skeleton injuries. Inadequate reduction and internal fixation may result in functional and aesthetic impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the use of intraoperative 3-dimensional (3-D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for determining the intraoperative revision rate and the need for additional reconstruction of the orbit.

Study Design.

We conducted a retrospective analysis of 48 consecutive patients (15 females, 33 males) suffering from simple or complex zygomatic fractures, seen between June 2015 and October 2016. Intraoperative 3-D CBCT (Xoran Technologies, Ann Arbor, MI) was performed, and the intraoperative image was overlaid on the preoperative image by using iPlan software (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany) for quality control. Categorical variables were cross-tabulated and compared using Fisher's exact test. P values and 95% confidence intervals were assessed.


In 6 of 48 patients, intraoperative revision was deemed necessary on the basis of the superimposition on the preoperative images. Five of these 6 patients had comminuted fractures (P = .001). In 7 patients, the indication for orbital reconstruction was revised after intraoperative 3-D CBCT.


Intraoperative 3-D CBCT allows for immediate revision and prevents unnecessary orbital reconstruction.

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