Presence and associated factors of carotid artery calcification detected by digital panoramic radiography in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis

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Abstract

Objectives.

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and associated factors of carotid artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis.

Study Design.

A total of 309 panoramic radiographs of patients with CKD (180 men and 129 women; mean age 43.7 years) undergoing hemodialysis were evaluated by a single radiologist to determine the frequency of CAC. An analysis of associated factors, such as age, sex, time spent in hemodialysis, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, biochemical parameters, and other systemic diseases, was also performed.

Results.

The presence of CAC in patients with CKD, as determined on the basis of panoramic radiography, was 15.9%. The χ2 test revealed that there was a statistically significant association between certain factors, such as age, sex, and diabetes mellitus, and the presence of CAC (P < .05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that time spent in hemodialysis was significantly associated with the occurrence of CAC.

Conclusions.

A significant presence of CAC was detected on digital panoramic radiographs in patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis. Calcification was more frequent in older patients, women, individuals with diabetes mellitus, and patients who had undergone hemodialysis for longer periods.

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