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To present current peer-reviewed articles related to the incidence and prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis.Recent literature indicates that the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis may be on the rise. Although the preoperative use of antibiotics as prophylaxis is still controversial, it is becoming more common.The reports of endophthalmitis analyzed from peer-reviewed ophthalmic journals suggest that the incidence of endophthalmitis has increased, ranging from 0.1 to 0.18% in different countries. This may be related to factors associated with the incision. Although some resistance has been detected, fourth-generation fluoroquinolones seem to be a proper antibiotic for endophthalmitis prophylaxis because of their spectrum, mode of action, and penetration.