Nonsteroidal drugs for the treatment of noninfectious posterior and intermediate uveitis

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Purpose of reviewThis review summarizes current nonsteroidal drug therapies for noninfectious posterior and intermediate uveitis.Recent findingsContinuing evidence shows that second-line agents including antimetabolites, T-cell inhibitors and alkylating agents, are effective in many patients, allowing reduction in steroid dose and preservation of visual function. There is an increased use of mycophenolate mofetil. Biologic therapies, including the antitumour necrosis factor-α agents and interferons, have demonstrated a high degree of efficacy in controlling uveitis refractory to immunosuppressants.SummaryThere are an increasing number of treatment options. As the vast majority of published studies in uveitis are case series or nonrandomized trials, there remains a lack of level 1 evidence to guide the choice and duration of therapy. Standard initial treatment for steroid-resistant disease is to add a single immunosuppressant to the regime, with additional agents being substituted or added as required. Combination of two immunosuppressants in addition to steroids may be indicated especially in chronic uveitis. High cost and limited long-term experience with biologic agents have restricted their use to uveitis refractory to immunosuppressants, but evidence suggests a potential therapeutic role earlier in Bechet's disease.

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