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The electroretinogram is an essential tool in the evaluation of the functional integrity of the retina, which may be especially useful in preverbal children. The present review describes the modifications needed for performing an electroretinogram in young children. Also, we present electroretinogram studies that have added to our understanding of the maturation of the visual system, the development of retinopathy of prematurity, and ametropia.The selected articles were grouped into four subjects: the technical modifications for performing a pediatric electroretinogram, including the possible need for sedation, the patient's position, and the recording electrodes; the maturation of the electroretinogram in preterm infants and in the first years of life; advancements in the understanding of retinopathy of prematurity; and understanding the development of ametropia based on the electroretinogram findings.Although the technique for performing an electroretinogram must be modified for young children, when needed, it can and should be performed early in life. This will yield an early diagnosis that may be useful for planning family and personal life.