Congenital Malformations of the Optic-Nerve Head

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Normal anatomical variations of the eye are a constant source of interest to the clinician. This is particularly true for the optic-nerve head, where neural, vascular, and supportive tissue converge, each with its own variations. Such diverse anomalies as cleft palate, reduced visual acuity, visual-field loss, and distortions of the opticnerve head may all be related to a single factor affecting embryonic or later development. This paper presents a number of nerve-head malformations in the context of their embryonic development, clinical appearance, and implications for visual function.

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