Multimodal Imaging of Serpiginous Choroiditis

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Abstract

Purpose

To report a case of atypical serpiginous choroiditis with previously unreported findings on optical coherence tomographic angiography.

Case Report

A 35-year-old otherwise healthy man had a 1-week history of vision loss in his right eye. The visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers at 1 meter. Fundoscopy showed a classic peripapillary serpiginous lesion and a solitary macular lesion. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed early hypofluorescence of active lesions with gradual increase in fluorescence across the phase of angiogram. Optical coherence tomography showed hyperreflectivity in outer retinal layers and loss of ellipsoid zone band. The patient was treated with oral prednisone and visual acuity returned to near normal. The inflammation recurred once the patient discontinued corticosteroid therapy. The flare-up was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral steroids. Oral azathioprine was added as a steroid-sparing agent and oral prednisone was tapered slowly and discontinued. The visual acuity returned to normal with settlement of all lesions after initiating azathioprine. Optical coherence tomography showed reintegration of retinal anatomy. No recurrence was seen after discontinuation of corticosteroids. Optical coherence tomographic angiography in resolved serpiginous choroiditis was consistent with loss of choriocapillaris homogeneity.

Conclusions

Serpiginous choroiditis may manifest with multifocal lesions and may be confused with relentless placoid chorioretinitis. However, it ends up in a typical geographic scar. Optical coherence tomography can be used to monitor the changes in retinal structure. Choriocapillaris changes as seen on optical coherence tomographic angiography may be a possible mechanism behind the development of choroidal neovascularization in later stages of the disease.

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