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To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects and the quadrant and proximal location of disc hemorrhages (DHs) in a large population examined for health screening.A total of 168,044 subjects older than 20 years underwent a single screening ophthalmic examination with color fundus photography as part of a comprehensive health screening program. The presence and location of DHs and RNFL defects were assessed. The DH locations were defined according to the quadrant location (inferotemporal, superotemporal, inferonasal, or superonasal) and the most proximal end of DHs relative to the disc center (cup base, cup margin, disc rim, or extrapapillary region). Using these two location descriptors as independent variables, a logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the effects of DH location on RNFL defects.Two hundred twenty-six eyes had DH and 120 (53.1%) of them had RNFL defects. After adjusting for proximal location, DHs located in the inferotemporal quadrant accompanied RFNL defects 12 times more frequently than those in the superonasal quadrant (odds ratio [OR], 11.81; P = .004). Conversely, after adjusting for quadrant location, the ORs for an associated RNFL defect were 3.73 (P < .001), 16.54 (P < .001), and 8.91 (P = .002) for DHs with the proximal end at the disc rim, cup margin, and cup base, respectively.Among the four quadrants and four proximal locations, DHs were identified most frequently in the inferotemporal quadrant and outside the disc, respectively. Some DH locations, such as the inferotemporal quadrant and the cup margin, were associated with RNFL defects, whereas others were not.