The aims of this study were to use cross-sectional optical coherence tomography imaging and custom curve fitting software to evaluate and model the foveal curvature as a spherical surface and to compare the radius of curvature in the horizontal and vertical meridians and test the sensitivity of this technique to anticipated meridional differences.Methods
Six 30-degree foveal-centered radial optical coherence tomography cross-section scans were acquired in the right eye of 20 clinically normal subjects. Cross sections were manually segmented, and custom curve fitting software was used to determine foveal pit radius of curvature using the central 500, 1000, and 1500 μm of the foveal contour. Radius of curvature was compared across different fitting distances. Root mean square error was used to determine goodness of fit. The radius of curvature was compared between the horizontal and vertical meridians for each fitting distance.Results
There radius of curvature was significantly different when comparing each of the three fitting distances (P < .01 for each comparison). The average radii of curvature were 970 μm (95% confidence interval [CI], 913 to 1028 μm), 1386 μm (95% CI, 1339 to 1439 μm), and 2121 μm (95% CI, 2066 to 2183) for the 500-, 1000-, and 1500-μm fitting distances, respectively. Root mean square error was also significantly different when comparing each fitting distance (P < .01 for each comparison). The average root mean square errors were 2.48 μm (95% CI, 2.41 to 2.53 μm), 6.22 μm (95% CI, 5.77 to 6.60 μm), and 13.82 μm (95% CI, 12.93 to 14.58 μm) for the 500-, 1000-, and 1500-μm fitting distances, respectively. The radius of curvature between the horizontal and vertical meridian radii was statistically different only in the 1000- and 1500-μm fitting distances (P < .01 for each), with the horizontal meridian being flatter than the vertical.Conclusions
The foveal contour can be modeled as a sphere with low curve fitting error over a limited distance and capable of detecting subtle foveal contour differences between meridians.