One-dimensional spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides

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We present experimental results on one-dimensional (1-D) spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides. Three distinct types of spatial solitons have been observed: namely the fundamental soliton, the Manakov soliton, and the vector soliton. The fundamental soliton is the simplest form of 1-D soliton which consists of a single polarization. The properties of waveguiding and ‘robustness’ are experimentally studied. Vector solitons which result from the complex interplay between the two orthogonally polarized beams due to self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and four-wave mixing effects are studied. The complex beam dynamics and polarization behaviour of the vector solitons are experimentally studied. Manakov solitons which are a special case of the vector soliton exist when the ratio between the self-to-cross-phase modulation is one and the four-wave mixing effects becomes zero are demonstrated experimentally and the basic properties discussed. Finally, some soliton interactions such as trapping and dragging are reported and possible applications of soliton interactions are discussed.

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