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Sebaceous adenoma (SA) is a rare solitary tumour with a predilection for the forehead and scalp. In the English literature, less than 10 cases of SA have been described in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to examine the clinicopathologic features and evaluate the expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor, estrogen receptor and androgen receptor in SA and in its differential diagnoses including sebaceous gland hyperplasia (SGH) and Fordyce's granules (FG). Additionally, we analysed the proliferative potential of sebaceous cells from SA, SGH and FG by measuring proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and quantification of argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions (AgNORs). The SA showed many clinicopathologic similarities to cases previously reported including the biphasic population of cells, in the periphery of lobules undifferentiated basaloid cells whereas the central area was formed by mature sebocytes. SA was composed of 198 lobules of sebaceous cells, whereas SGH and FG showed a mean of 21 ± 7.81 and 5.84 ± 2.83, respectively. The AgNOR and PCNA indices were similar in SA, SGH and FG. These data suggest that lobule counts may be used as additional criteria in distinguishing SA of the oral cavity from other intraoral sebaceous gland lesions.