Eckols reduce dental pulp inflammation through the ERK1/2 pathway independent of COX-2 inhibition

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OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 6–6 bieckol (EB1) and pholorofucofuroeckol-A (EB5) from brown seaweed marine algae (Eisenia bicyclis) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs).METHODS:The cytotoxicity of EB1 and EB5 was examined by MTT assay on LPS-induced human dental pulp cells. Their role on expression of inflammatory, odontogenic, and osteogenic molecules was determined by Western blot analysis. The dentin mineralization was checked by alkaline phosphatase activity.RESULTS:The five compounds fromE. bicyclishave different structure with non-cytotoxic in HDPCs. EB1 and EB5 showed anti-inflammatory properties and inhibited phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated-c-junN-terminal kinases (p-JNK) without any cytotoxicity. In particular, EB1 inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and p-ERK1/2 signaling, and EB5 inhibited only p-ERK1/2 signaling but not COX-2. Both compounds inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) translocation. Furthermore, EB1 and EB5 increased dentinogenic and osteogenic molecules, and dentin mineralized via alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) in LPS-induced HDPCs.CONCLUSIONS:This study elucidates that EB1 and EB5 have different types of anti-inflammatory property and help in dentin formation. Therefore, these compounds derived from marine algae ofE. bicyclismay be used as selective therapeutic strategies for pulpitis and oral diseases.

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