|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Systemic non-biological agents (NBAs) have been extensively used for immunosuppression in clinical medicine, often with considerable efficacy, although sometimes accompanied with adverse effects as with all medicines. With the advent of biological agents, all of which currently are restricted to systemic use, there is a rising need to identify which agents have the better therapeutic ratio. The NBAs include a range of agents, most especially the corticosteroids (corticosteroids). This article reviews the purine synthesis inhibitors (azathioprine and mycophenolate), which are currently the most commonly used systemically immunosuppressive agents in the management of orofacial mucocutaneous diseases. Subsequent articles discuss other corticosteroid-sparing agents used in the management of orofacial disease, such as calcineurin inhibitors, and the cytotoxic and other immunomodulatory agents.