Cytotoxicity of four root canal sealers in permanent 3T3 cells and primary human periodontal ligament fibroblast cultures

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Objectives.The purposes of this study were to determine the cytocompatibility of four endodontic sealers and gutta-percha using various extracts and to compare the cellular injuries resulting from these materials in permanent 3T3 monolayers and primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.Study design.Set specimens from four sealers (AH26, Apexit, Sealapex, N2) as well as gutta-percha were eluted with cell culture medium for 24 hours, 5 days, 5 days, and 24 hours, respectively. Cytotoxic effects due to these extracts were evaluated by determining proliferation of permanent 3T3 cells and primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts by means of the fluorochrome propidiumiodide.Results.No statistically significant cellular alterations were induced by gutta-percha and Apexit, whereas various extracts of AH26 and Sealapex caused significant moderate or severe growth inhibition. Severe cellular damage was documented for all extracts of N2, which was statistically significantly different from the other materials in both cell lines (p < 0.05).Conclusions.Our results confirm that various root canal sealers constantly segregate substances after being exposed to an aqueous environment for extended periods, possibly causing moderate or severe cytotoxic reactions and possibly contributing to failure.

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