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The objective of this study was to retrospectively compare the outcomes of dental implant treatment with and without antibiotic prophylaxis. Two groups of patients with edentulous or partially edentulous maxillas or mandibles (or both) were treated with dental implants. One group, consisting of 147 patients (790 implants), was given prophylaxis with oral phenoxymethylpenicillin; 1 g of antibiotic was administered 1 hour preoperatively, and 1 g was administered every 8 hours for 10 days postoperatively. The other group, consisting of 132 patients (664 implants) was not given any antibiotics preoperatively or postoperatively. There were no significant differences with respect to early and late postoperative infections or with respect to implant survival between the two groups. It appears that antibiotic prophylaxis for routine dental implant surgery offers no advantage for the patient.