Anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of the intraosseous injection of 1.5% etidocaine (1:200,000 epinephrine) after an inferior alveolar nerve block


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Abstract

Objective.The purpose of this study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy and heart rate effects of an intraosseous (IO) injection of 1.5% etidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine after an inferior alveolar nerve block.Study design.In a repeated-measures designed study, 48 subjects randomly received 2 combinations of injections at 2 separate appointments. The combinations were an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block (with 3% mepivacaine) + IO injection with 1.8 mL of 1.5% etidocaine hydrochloride containing 1:200,000 epinephrine, and an IAN + mock IO injection. The first molar was blindly tested with a pulp tester at 2-minute cycles for 60 minutes after the injection. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings (no subject response) were obtained. Heart rate (pulse rate) was measured with a pulse oximeter.Results.Lip numbness occurred in 100% of the subjects with both the techniques. For the first molar, anesthetic success for the IAN + mock IO and the IAN + IO etidocaine hydrochloride groups, respectively, were 81% and 100%. The differences were significant (P < .05) when the IAN + IO etidocaine hydrochloride technique was compared with the IAN + mock IO. A mean increase in heart rate of 32 beats/min occurred in 90% of the subjects with the IO injection of the etidocaine hydrochloride solution. In 89% of these subjects, the heart rate returned to within 5 beats of baseline values 4 minutes or less after solution deposition.Conclusions.The IO injection of 1.8 mL of 1.5% etidocaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine, when used to augment an inferior alveolar nerve block, significantly increased anesthetic success in the first molar. The majority of subjects receiving the IO injection of the etidocaine hydrochloride solution had a transient increase in heart rate. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000;89407-11)

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