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This study compared food intake among patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and control patients.A total of 2129 outpatients of a dental hospital were enrolled. Of these, 118 patients reporting RAS experiences 4 times or more during the past year (RAS group) were selected with age-matched and sex-matched control patients. The patients filled out a questionnaire about the frequency intake of 33 foods.Principal component factor analysis extracted 2 food intake patterns (Factor I and II). The factor weight for Factor I showed a significantly positive correlation with consumption ratios of calcium, iron, vitamin B1, and vitamin C intake to total daily intake. The median factor score for Factor I, which was calculated based on the factor weight, was significantly lower in the patients with RAS than that in the controls.We hypothesize that not only iron and vitamin B1 might be deficient in these patients but also calcium and vitamin C.