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The study purpose was to compare and contrast the hospital course of patients who are human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) and human immunodeficiency virus-negative (HIV–) who were admitted to manage their odontogenic infection.We used a retrospective case-control study design and a sample derived from patients admitted for management of their odontogenic infections. Cases and controls were defined as patients who were HIV+ or HIV–, respectively. HIV status was determined by patient self-report. Outcome variables included admission temperature (degrees Celsius) and white blood cell count, number of fascial spaces infected, days with temperature >38°C, need for intensive care, and length of hospital stay.The study sample consisted of 60 patients (10 HIV+ cases and 50 HIV– controls matched for age and sex) with a mean age of 32.8 ± 6.6 years and was predominately male (78%). Significant differences existed between patients who were HIV+ and those who were HIV– for the following variables: admission white blood cell count, number of days with maximum temperature >38.0°C, and use of the intensive care unit.The study results suggest that patients who are HIV+ who are admitted for management of odontogenic infection have a significantly more intense hospital course than those who are HIV–. However, the overall length of hospital stay is not significantly different.