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The objective of this study was to determine the cytocompatibility of 5 different extracts of resin-based restorative materials (2 resin-modified glass ionomer cements, 1 compomer, and 2 composite resins) on human pulp cells.Set specimens from 2 resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Fuju II LC and Fuji IX), 1 compomer (Dyract), and 2 composite resins (Tetric and Superfil) were eluted with culture medium for 2 and 5 days. The effects of resin-based restorative materials on human pulp cells were evaluated with cytotoxicity and mitochondrial activity assays.The results showed that the eluates from resin-modified glass-ionomer, compomer, and composite resins were cytotoxic to primary human pulp cells. In addition, Superfil, Fuji IX, and Tetric demonstrated an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial activity of human pulp cells. It was found that composite resin Superfil was the most toxic restorative material among the chemicals tested.The influence of the cytotoxicity depended on the materials tested. Compomer or light-curing resin-modified glass ionomer may initially react more favorably to pulp cells.