The effect of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of HIV-associated oral candidiasis in a Spanish cohort

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ObjectiveTo investigate the temporal changes in the prevalence of oral candidiasis in a cohort of Spanish human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).Study designRetrospective analysis of a clinical database from “Carlos Haya” Hospital, Málaga, Spain, from 1995 to 2000. The prevalence of oral candidiasis was assessed in 807 HIV/AIDS patients and the temporal progression of its major variants evaluated using a linear regression model.ResultsOverall oral candidiasis was prevalent in 30.0% to 48.3% of the cohort throughout and no significant variation in its incidence was noted during the study period. Prevalence of erythematous candidiasis increased from 24.5% (1995) to 45.0% (2000) and pseudomembranous candidiasis decreased from 22.4% (1995) to 5.2% (2000) (P < .05). Hyperplastic candidiasis was not detected in the cohort after the introduction of HAART therapy.ConclusionsAlthough oral candidiasis in HIV-infected Spanish individuals has not decreased significantly after the introduction of HAART, there appears to be a significant reduction in hyperplastic and pseudomembranous variants of the disease with a compensatory increase in erythematous candidiasis.

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