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The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).Eight subjects with synovial chondromatosis were examined with axial and coronal CT scans. All lesions were histopathologically confirmed either through an arthroscopic punch biopsy or surgery. CT appearances of the lesions were reviewed and classified.Among the 8 subjects, 7 (87.5%) demonstrated soft tissue swelling, 7 (87.5%) showed loose calcified bodies, and 6 (75%) had bony changes of the articular surfaces. Patterns of the skull base changes as well as intracranial extension of the disease were identified.Based on the CT findings, synovial chondromatosis of the TMJ is characterized by soft tissue swelling, loose calcified bodies, and bony changes of the skull base. The latter may lead to destruction of the central skull base and intracranial extension.