Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with predominant bone involvement, initially diagnosed by its oral manifestation: A case report

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Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/L) is a rare malignant neoplasm linked to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This virus has been identified in Japan, the Caribbean, and, more recently, Brazil. We report a case of ATL/L (lymphoma-type) affecting a 30-year-old Brazilian woman. She presented a painful and ulcerated lesion on her hard palate mucosa. Conventional radiographs and computed tomography revealed the involvement of several bones plus the lung and axillary lymph nodes. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of oral biopsy confirmed a T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Final diagnosis of ATL/L was made based on HTLV-1 positivity. She underwent multiple cycles of chemotherapy, which produced some improvement, but she died as a consequence of pulmonary and hepatic complications 4 months after the initial diagnosis. Besides the process of diagnosing and typing a malignant lymphoma, this article outlines the value of computed tomography and the necessity of performing HTVL-1 investigation in patients with a diagnosis of lymphoma of T-cell lineage.

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