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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the proliferation and the differentiation of rat bone marrow cells (RBMCs). PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and bone marrow cells were derived from the rats (hearts and tibia) and the cells were cultured with or without PRP or PPP (0 [control]), 0.2 ∼10 μL/mL). The proliferation of RBMCs was measured on days 2 and 4, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and activity measurement were evaluated to determine the effect of PRP on the differentiation on days 4 and 8. PRP enhanced the proliferation significantly compared to the control group (P < .05). These enhancements were greater than ones induced by the addition of PPP. ALP staining appeared to show that PRP decreased the number of ALP positive cells and ALP activity significantly (P < .05). Our results demonstrate that PRP stimulates the proliferation but suppresses the differentiation of RBMCs.