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This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of periradicular lesions in root-filled teeth from an urban adult Brazilian population, and to investigate the quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations and their association with the periradicular status of these teeth.Root canal fillings from 2,051 teeth were categorized as adequate or inadequate on the basis of root canal filling length and homogeneity. Coronal restorations from the same teeth were categorized into adequate, inadequate, or absent. Results were analyzed statistically using the chi-squared test.The overall success rate of root-filled teeth was 49.7%. Cases with adequate endodontic treatment and adequate restorations had a success rate of 71%. When cases with adequate treatment and inadequate restoration were evaluated, the success rate was 65%. Cases with adequate treatment and absent restoration showed a success rate of 48%. Teeth with inadequate treatment combined with adequate restoration yielded a success rate of 38%, whereas the combination of inadequate treatment and inadequate restoration resulted in a success rate of 25%. Teeth with inadequate treatment and absent restoration showed the lowest success rate of this study (18%). Data analysis revealed that when the root canal filling appeared to be adequate, the quality of the restoration did not significantly influence the treatment outcome. However, when a coronal restoration was absent, the success rate of adequately treated canals was significantly reduced. The quality of the coronal restoration significantly affected the outcome of inadequately treated teeth.Our results revealed a high prevalence of periradicular lesions in root-filled teeth, which was comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, even though the coronal restoration had a significant impact on the periradicular health, the quality of the root canal filling was found to be the most critical factor in this regard.