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The objective of this investigation was to assess the prevalence of oral lichen planus (OLP) in Brazilian patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the state of Rio de Janeiro.The study group consisted of 134 patients with HCV infection. The control group consisted of 95 individuals. All patients were physically examined for evidence of OLP. The diagnosis of OLP was established on the basis of usual clinical features and histological findings.The prevalence of OLP was 1.5% in patients with HCV infection and 1.1% in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .63).Our findings indicate that there is no association between OLP and HCV infection in Brazilian patients from the state of Rio de Janeiro.