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To evaluate the treatment effect of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis using viscosupplementation and arthrocentesis on rabbit model.Bilateral TMJ osteoarthritis of 24 rabbits was established by intraarticular injection with matrix metaloproteinase-1. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups: arthrocentesis group (group A), viscosupplementation group (group B), and combination group (group C). The rabbits were treated in the second, third, and fourth week on the left joint cavities. The right joint was used as a control. In group A, arthrocentesis was applied. In group B, viscosupplementation was applied. In group C, arthrocentesis and viscosupplementation were applied together. All rabbits were killed after the 8th week for sample collection. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and samples observed under light microscope.There were no significant difference in pathologic change between left and right joints of group A. In group B, the average histologic assessment result of the pathologic changes in the left joint was 3.75, and it was 7.75 in the right joint. In group C, the average histologic assessment result of the pathologic changes in the left joint was 2.50, and it was 6.50 in the right joint.Viscosupplementation inhibits the development of osteoarthritis. There was synergism when viscosupplementation was applied together with arthrocentesis.