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Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (nonLCH). It is a benign and self-healing disorder that generally affects infants and children. Oral lesions in adult patients are rare, although the microscopic findings are similar to those observed in other locations. A 56-year-old white man presented with a chief complaint of a gingival mass that had appeared 6 months before and had grown slowly. An intraoral examination revealed the presence of a solitary, softened gingival mass affecting the mandibular lingual gingiva at the right central incisor area. A biopsy of the lesion showed multiple large macrophages and numerous giant cells of Touton type. The immunohistochemistry positivity for CD68, fascin, factor XIIIa, α-antitrypsin and negativity for S-100, β-actin, CD1a, and desmin confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The occurrence of adult oral JXG is extremely rare. It is a nonLCH that may present variable clinical and microscopic aspects, which leads to a diversity of clinical misdiagnoses. A precise diagnosis of these lesions requires an accurate evaluation of clinical, microscopic, and immunohistochemical features.