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The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of 2 root canal disinfection techniques (apical negative pressure irrigation versus apical positive pressure irrigation plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing) in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.Two groups of root canals with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were evaluated according to the disinfection technique: group 1: apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system); and group 2: apical positive pressure irrigation (conventional irrigation) plus triantibiotic intracanal dressing. The first sample (S1) was collected after lesions were radiographically visible, and the second sample (S2) was collected after apical negative pressure irrigation (group 1) or conventional irrigation/triantibiotic dressing (group 2). All samples were seeded in a culture medium for anaerobic bacteria. Colony-forming unit counts were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test (α = .05).Microorganisms were present in 100% of canals of both groups in S1. In S2, microorganisms were absent in 88.6% of group 1's canals and 78.28% of group 2's canals. There was no significant difference between the groups in either S1 (P = .0963) or S2 (P = .0566). There was significant (P < .05) bacterial reduction from S1 to S2 in both groups.In immature teeth with apical periodontitis, use of the EndoVac system can be considered to be a promising disinfection protocol, because it provided similar bacterial reduction to that of apical positive pressure irrigation (conventional irrigation) plus intracanal dressing with the triantibiotic paste, and the use of intracanal antibiotics might not be necessary.