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The objective of this study was to histologically analyze the influence of the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone healing in surgically created critical-size defects (CSD) in the calvaria of diabetic rats.A total of 20 diabetic rats were divided into 2 groups: C (control) and PRP. A 5-mm diameter CSD was created in the calvarium of each animal. In Group C, the defect was filled by blood clot only. In Group PRP, 0.35 mL of PRP was placed in the defects. All animals were humanely killed 30 days postoperatively. Histometric and histologic analyses were performed. Data were statistically analyzed (t test, P < .05).No defect completely regenerated with bone. Group PRP had a statistically greater amount of bone formation than Group C (37.22% ± 6.00% and 21.68% ± 11.35%, respectively).PRP placed in the defects significantly enhanced bone healing in CSD in the calvaria of diabetic rats both qualitatively and quantitatively.