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This study assessed the effect of recombinant fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on reimplanted teeth.Premolars were reimplanted in dogs. Roots on the left side of the mandible were treated with FGF-2, whereas roots on right side served as controls. At 2, 4, or 8 weeks after treatment, animals were humanely killed and specimens collected and processed for histopathologic examination.After 2 weeks, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cell ratios in the experimental group were significantly greater than those in the control group (P < .01). After 4 and 8 weeks, the experimental group showed formation of new cementum. Moreover, incidence of replacement resorption in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < .01).The results indicate that FGF-2 promotes formation of new periodontal ligament and prevents ankylosis and root resorption following reimplantation of teeth.