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To evaluate the early bone response to plateau root form dental implants with 4 different surface treatments.Surface treatments comprised (n = 12 each): as-machined (M), alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE), alumina-blasted/acid-etched + nanothickness bioceramic coating (Nano), and plasma-sprayed calcium phosphate (PSCaP). Implants were placed in the radius diaphyses of 12 beagle dogs, remaining in vivo for 3 and 5 weeks. After euthanasia, the implants were subjected to torque to interface fracture and subsequently nondecalcified for histomorphology. Statistical analysis was performed by a GLM analysis of variance model at 5% significance level.Torque to interface fracture was significantly greater for the PSCaP group than for other groups (P < .001). Histomorphologic analysis showed woven bone formation around all implant surfaces at 3 weeks, and its replacement by lamellar bone at 5 weeks. Time in vivo did not affect torque measures.The PSCaP surface increased the early bone biomechanical fixation of plateau root form implants.