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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mandibular advancement on oropharyngeal dimension and collapsibility and reveal the predominate site of change produced by mandibular advancement in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).Sixteen adults (13 males and 3 females) with symptomatic mild to severe OSA participated. Custom-made silicone mandibular positioners were used to keep the mandible at 67% of maximum advancement. Changes in the oropharyngeal size and collapsibility with mandibular advancement were evaluated using ultrafast computed tomography taken during wakefulness and midazolam-induced sleep. Cross-sectional areas were assessed using electron beam tomography at 4 levels: high retropalatal (HRP), low retropalatal (LRP), high retroglossal (HRG), and low retroglossal (LRG).During sleep, the minimum cross-sectional areas decreased 36.5%, 67.8%, 75.5%, and 65.8% at each level of HRP, LRP, HRG, and LRG respectively, as compared with those measured during wakefulness. Mandibular advancement during sleep increased 75.7%, 141.3%, 128.1%, and 119.9% at each level. The oropharynx showed 70.3%, 110.4%, 140.3%, and 156.9% increase in the Collapsibility Indices during sleep at each level of HRP, LRP, HRG, and LRG, respectively, compared with wakefulness. However, collapsibility indices decreased 29.1%, 23.2%, 21.4%, and 34.1% at each level with mandibular advancement.Mandibular advancement increases oropharyngeal diameter and decreases oropharyngeal collapsibility during midazolam-induced sleep respiration at the retropalatal as well as the retroglossal region in most patients with OSA.