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The aim of this study was to establish a model to aid in understanding the influences of bilateral masseter muscle relocation on the bone and muscle, and to determine the influences of bilateral masseter muscle relocation on mandibular growth pattern in rabbits.Ten 3-month-old growing white New Zealand rabbits were included. Digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained before operation and 6 months after surgery. The Co-Gn, gonial angle, FMA, ANS-Me, GoGn-SN, Y-axis, and Jarabak values were compared by using Student t test.There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the gonial angle (P < .05). Vertical height values (GoGn-SN, FMA, Y-axis, and ANS-Me) showed statistically significant increases in animals in the control group. In contrast, vertical height values in the experimental group did not show statistically significant increase.Anterior relocation of the masseteric muscle influenced the direction of vertical growth significantly compared with the control group.