Triclosan alters antimicrobial and inflammatory responses of epithelial cells

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Abstract

Periodontal diseases are a class of pathologies wherein oral microbes induce harmful immune responses in a susceptible host. Therefore, an agent that can both reduce microbial burden and lessen pathogenesis of localized inflammation would have beneficial effects in periodontal disease; 2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl-ether [triclosan] is currently used in oral care products owing to broad spectrum antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine effects of triclosan on the response of oral epithelial cells to stimulation with the inflammatory microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4].

MATERIALS/METHODS:

Primary human oral epithelial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and/or absence of triclosan after which expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, β-defensins, micro-RNAs [miRNAs], or TLR-signaling pathway proteins were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Here, we demonstrate that triclosan is a potent inhibitor of oral epithelial cell LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by inducing miRNA regulation of the TLR-signaling pathway. Triclosan was not a pan-suppresser of oral epithelial cell responses as β-defensin 2 [βD2] and βD3 were upregulated by triclosan following LPS-stimulation.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data demonstrate both a novel antimicrobial mechanism by which triclosan improves plaque control and an additional anti-inflammatory property, which could have beneficial effects in periodontal disease resolution.

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