Systemic use of non-biologic agents in orofacial diseases: other immunomodulatory agents

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Systemic non-biologic agents have long been in clinical use in medicine – often with considerable efficacy, albeit with some adverse effects – as with all medications. With the advent of biologic agents, all of which currently are restricted to systemic use, there is a growing need to ensure which agents have the better therapeutic ratio. The non-biologic agents (NBAs) include a range of agents, most importantly the corticosteroids (steroids). Previous articles by us in this series have discussed systemic use of corticosteroids and purine synthesis inhibitors; the other immunomodulating agents (calcineurin inhibitors, thalidomide, dapsone, colchicine and cyclophosphamide) are reviewed in this final article.

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