Early tooth loss in end-stage renal disease patients on haemodialysis

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Abstract

Objective

This article sets out to evaluate the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of edentulism in patients on haemodialysis.

Subjects and methods

The study group comprised 44 adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis. A control group was formed of 44 individuals matched for age and sex and with a glomerular filtration rate >90 ml min−1. All participants underwent intra-oral examination, gathering information on dental and periodontal status, and a saliva sample was taken to determine saliva debit and its biochemical composition.

Results

The average number of missing teeth was higher in ESRD patients than in controls (P= 0.018). Six (13.6%) fully edentulous individuals were detected in the study group and 1 (2.2%) in the control group. Some of the clinical and biochemical variables with statistically significant differences between the study group and the control group showed a significant relationship with the number of missing teeth, but the depth of the periodontal pockets presented the highest coefficient of determination (OR = 3511.1; 95%CI = 82.2–6834.3;P< 0.001;R2= 0.827).

Conclusions

Premature tooth loss is common in haemodialysis patients. Although the aetiology and pathogenesis of this finding has still not been fully clarified, it appears that severe periodontal disease may play a relevant role.

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